Diagnosis of thyroid disease is primarily a laboratory diagnosis. When the TSH is elevated and thyroid hormone levels low, or when TSH is suppressed and the thyroid hormone levels are high, it is trivial to diagnose hypo- and hyperthyroidism, respectively. In such cases, the treatment is relatively straightforward as well. However when the tests are not straightforward, one is unable to initiate treatment until the diagnosis is certain. Two major conundrums faced by physicians caring for thyroid patients are when 1) the levels of TSH and thyroid hormone are not complementary or 2) when the thyroid hormone levels don’t match the clinical symptoms. This presentation will unravel the seeming contradictions between clinical presentation and laboratory analysis of such thyroid tests.
Depending on whether you count all insulins as one or count them as multiple classes, there are now between 13 and 19 classes of antihyperglycemic agents that have been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Insulin remains the most effective antihyperglycemic agent, and many, if not most, patients with T2DM will eventually require treatment with one or more of the increasing insulin therapy options. In this case compendium, Lawrence Blonde, MD, discusses patients at different stages of T2DM to illustrate how clinicians can better utilize insulin therapy options to attain glycemic control and improve the overall health outcomes of patients with T2DM
The primary goal of this integrated, multi-interventional curriculum of both live and online activities is to provide an educational initiative for primary care physicians, physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) on the advantages and disadvantages of prandial insulin, the clinical profiles of GPL-1 receptor agonists, and the benefits of combining GLP-1 receptor agonists with basal insulin.
Highlights from the recent AACE/ATA hypothyroidism guidelines are reviewed in this activity.
In this activity, Dr. Richard Pratley, a world-renowned diabetologist, will provide evidence-based practical approaches to attaining glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. He will outline strategies for setting glycemic targets, monitoring treatment, and intensifying treatment when glycemic targets are not met. The efficacy and safety of newer antidiabetic agents will be highlighted.
In this activity, Dr. Hennessey uses a patient case to review best practices for primary care clinicians to assess and manage pituitary disease. Using one case as an example, he reviews the diagnostic parameters to be considered in correctly identifying the endocrine etiologic reasons behind hyperprolactinemia.
Dr. Brent discusses three cases illustrating application of clinical guidelines for thyroid disease management. He provides practical tips and advice on how to diagnose and manage hypothyroidism in pregnancy and recognize and treat amiodarone-associated hyperthyroidism. Dr. Brent also reviews thyroid function test patterns associated with nutritional supplements containing thyroid hormone.
In this activity, Dr. Katz will discuss common endocrine disrupting chemicals found in plastics today and their effect on health. He will also outline strategies to limit exposure and mention steps, both physicians and patients can take to increase awareness about the long-term health effects of EDCs.